Instrumentation amplifiers are precision devices having a high input impedance, a low output impedance, a high common-mode rejection ratio, a low level of self-generated noise and a low offset drift. Try to connect the windings of the rotor with the DC source through the slip ring and graphite made brushes, if you connect the windings directly with the dc source, it causes serious spark and motor will damage. I book-marked it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back in the near future. Examples can be heartbeats, blood pressure, temperature, earthquakes and so on. If the one terminal of the DC source is joined with one carbon brush, then the other will be connected with the second brush. But these to the motor are similar in physical structure. Instrumentation Amplifiers A guide to instrumentation amplifiers and how to proper use the INA326 Zane Crawford 3-21-2014 Abstract This document aims to introduce the reader to instrumentation amplifiers and its uses. Through this platform, I am also sharing my professional and technical knowledge to engineering students. "Polyphase Circuits MCQs" pdf covers quiz questions about balanced delta- connected load, balanced wye-connected load, equivalent y and &delta connections, phasor voltages, the two wattmeter method, three phase power, three phase systems, … In today’s tutorial, we are gonna have a look at Introduction to Synchronous Generator. © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. I don’t understand why I cannot join it. The given diagram shows the salient pole rotor. The intent of this guide is to explain the fundamentals of what an instrumentation amplifier is, how it operates, Hello there! Awesome article dude! Draw the ideal equivalent circuit of an Op-amp. Hi friends, I hope all of you are fine. The external direct current supply is given to the rotor and it produces field in the rotor. It mostly used in such a system where constant speed is required. An instrumentation amplifier is used to amplify very low-level signals, rejecting noise and interference signals. I’ve a presentation next week, and I’m at the search for such information. There is some loss of voltage at the brushes which increases the field current and power loss at the field windings. As we discussed that we use slip ring and carbon brushes to provide the dc supply to the windings of the rotor. At the same time, IAs also suppress common mode signals like offsets and noise. A given diagram shows the pilot exciter circuit. Includes Detailed Coverage Of Fabrication Technology Of Integrated Circuits. SALIENT FEATURES : Adtron’s Humidity Measurement Trainer is a versatile self – contained stand – alone unit useful in the study and demonstration of the principle and working of a Humidity sensor. Virtual Labs will provide to the students the result of an experiment by one of the following methods (or possibly a combination) Modeling the physical phenomenon by a set of equations and carrying out simulations to yield the result of the particular experiment. This can, at-the-best, provide an approximate version of the ‘real-world’ experiment. Every end of the rotor’s windings is joined with the slip rings and the static brushes are mounted on the slip rings. tion applications are instrumentation amplifiers, and by no means are all in-amps used only in instrumentation applications. After checking out a number of the blog posts on your blog, I seriously like your way of blogging. Hey there I am so happy I found your blog, I really found you by mistake, while I was looking on Google for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say many thanks for a incredible post and a all round interesting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to read through it all at the moment but I have bookmarked it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a great deal more, Please do keep up the excellent work. Salient features, Block diagram and Pin description of Instrumentation amplifiers AD620, Salient features, Block diagram and Pin description of Precision amplifiers AD594/595. As the brush is made from the carbon that is soft material nature, so their condition must be monitored after some time and maybe they should be replaced after some time. Where else may anybody get that kind of info in such an ideal method of writing? I’ll probably be back again to see more, thanks for the advice! Salient Features: Pre-Filter and Post-Filter Gain The PF-1U-FA amplifier gain is distributed both before and after the filter to provide protection from large out-of-band energy or transients that could cause clipping before the filter, distorting the data. in Microelectronics from BITS, Pilani and Ph.D. from GGS Indraprastha University Delhi. The brushes always mounted on the slip ring because they are made from graphite which has less resistance. I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it. * Housed in an elegant metal cabinet with a well spread intelligently designed circuit layout on the front panel. She did her M.E in Electronics and Control from BITS, Pilani, and Ph.D. from Faculty of Technology, Delhi University. The functionality is verified through simulations on Cadence Virtuoso using TowerJazz’s 180 nm Technology Node and performance against PVT variations is also examined. He is currently an undergraduate student, pursuing his Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Delhi Technological University. I am a professional engineer and graduate from a reputed engineering university also have experience of working as an engineer in different famous industries. In today’s tutorial, we are gonna have a look at the Equivalent Circuit of Synchronous Generator and how it describes the different parameters of synchronous generator. For example, to produce the sixty-hertz energy in a 2-pole machine the speed of the rotor should be 3600 revolutions per minute. I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up! Most of the synchronous generator also has a slip ring and brushes with the brushless exciter, in case of an emergency backup power supply is exists. It is also … Oh my goodness! The word ‘salient’ means to stick out, Non-salient pole is such a pole that is manufactured with the surface of the rotor they are not out of the surface like the salient poles. It must connect with the external source. The synchronous generator is the type of AC generator. The instrumentation amplifier can extracts and amplify weak sensor signals out of the noisy environment and feed a clean single-ended output to the ADC. In synchronous generator, the speed of rotation of the rotor is equal to the speed of the rotation of the field at the stator. The Instrumentation Amplifier (IA) resembles the differential amplifier, with the main difference that the inputs are buffered by two Op Amps. It provides high CMMR. Feasibility of on-chip implementation is confirmed by the post-layout simulations carried out. 472/2012) Part I : General Knowledge, Current Affairs & Renaissance in Kerala Salient Features of Indian Constitution Salient features of the Constitution - Preamble- Its significance and its place in the interpretation of the Constitution. The circuit for the Operational Amplifier based Instrumentation Amplifier is shown in the figure below: The following figure shows the buffer amplifier … These two components cause some difficulties. 6. Advantages of Instrumentation amplifier. Then the output of the rectifier sent to the field circuitry of the rotor. It is thus essential that an IA has high differential gain, and more importantly, high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). INSTRUMENTATION (POLYTECHNICS) TECHNICAL EDUCATION (CATEGORY No. Too cool! It is very common for sensors to require some degree of amplification. I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back down the road. Small signal amplifies are designed to amplify very small signal voltage levels of only a few micro-volts (µV) from sensors or audio signals. In this type of colling method cool air is passed through the stator with the ducts and from another side of the stator it comes out. While there is no need of a special external source for the induction generator, as it is self start the machine. 2. Therefore, the essential characteristics of a good instrumentation amplifier are as follows. The working of a synchronous generator is based on Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction. These are some similarities and dissimilarities between synchronous and. Pretty sure he’s going to have a great read. If a pilot exciter relates to the shaft of the rotor then there will be no need of the exterior power supply to operate the generator. There are 2 terms we use to represent windings in the machines first one is armature winding and the other one is field winding. I am looking ahead on your subsequent publish, I will try to get the grasp of it! Biomedical Instrumentation Systems-Shakti Chatterjee 2012-12-20 Learn to maintain and repair the high tech hospital equipment with this practical, straightforward, and thorough new book. It consumes less power. As we know that there are 2 fields exists in the synchronous generator first one is the rotor field and the other one is stator. Her research interests are Analog Integrated Circuits, and Microelectronics. * Test points provided at various stages in the circuit. Thank you for some other informative website. Is there anybody else getting the same RSS issues? In this method of colling power losses for ventilation is less. Synchronous Generator parallel with Large Power system, Synchronous Generator Parallel with same Size Generator. Neeta Pandey is currently a Professor in Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Delhi Technological University. In case of the synchronous generator, the field windings are the rotor windings and the stator windings are the armature windings. In-amps are used in many applications, from motor control to data acquisition to automotive. There are 2 main types of synchronous generator. Hydrogen Cooling of a Synchronous Generator. Spot on with this write-up, I honestly feel this web site needs a great deal more attention. 3. The motors and generators are further divided into the AC and DC motors and generators according to their power generation and use. ideal op amp, instrumentation amplifier, introduction, inverting amplifier, noninverting amplifier, operational amplifiers, and summing amplifier. The advantages of Instrumentation Amplifier are: 1. As if the air exists in environments where hydrogen is performed it can create expulsion. * Construction and study of the principal & working of a sample & hold circuit. For dc supply to the rotor, they used brushless exciters. Hi friends, I hope all of you are fine. The Gain of the circuit can be varied by using specific value of resistor. Many Kisses! Any synchronous machine either motor or a generator can provide active power to or get active power from a system connected and provide reactive power to and get reactive power from the system. The place else could I get that type of info written in such an ideal manner? The presence of carbon brushes and separate dc sources make complicated construction of a synchronous generator and increase its price. Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Salient Features 1. As we have discussed that the rotor of the synchronous generator is an electromagnet, it joined to the dc source. The amplifier provides a gain of 43 dB in a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.05 Hz-2 kHz with a defined high input impedance of 75 M omega. As the rotor rotates so there is some precaution that we should keep in mind, connecting rotor with the DC source. It employs Modified Z copy Current Differencing Transconductance Amplifier (MZC-CDTA) along with a resistor. I’m using the same blog platform as yours and I’m having problems finding one? Basic Principles Of Operational Amplifier, Internal Construction And Applications Have Been Discussed. He always kept talking about this. The arrangement of the brushless exciter with a generator is shown in a given diagram. To reduce or minimize heat in the generator there are several methods are used that are described here. They convert mechanical energy into the electrical energy up to the 1500 megawatt. * Set of required number of patch cords. A new design for electronically tunable current mode (CM) instrumentation amplifier (IA) is presented in this paper. The speed rotation of the field in the ac machine has a relation with the frequency at the stator, is given as. In today’s post we will have a look at its construction, working, excitation method, etc. Non-linearity is very low. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Electronically tunable high gain current-mode instrumentation amplifier. She is a member of IEEE and IEEE WIE for over 12 years. The circuit diagram of a typical instrumentation amplifier using opamp is shown below. Equivalent Circuit of Synchronous Generator. To get the knowledge about the programmable instrumentation amplifiers Students get the knowledge about the programmable instrumentation amplifiers 3. Biomedical Instrumentation Systems uses practical medical scenarios to illustrate effective equipment maintenance and repair procedures. The direction of the field of the rotor will be the direction of the rotation of the rotor. The stator is the static part of the generator it provides the covering to the internal construction of the machine. These poles are constructed from steel and are laminated. Your email address will not be published. The synchronous generator is not self-excited there is a need of special direct current source to connected with it. Thank you, However I am having difficulties with your RSS. In electrical engineering particularly in power production there are 2 main sources of energy conversion, first is a motor and the other is a generator. As the output of the exciter is 3 phase ac which is then converted to dc by the rectification, this rectification circuitry is also connected on the shaft of the synchronous generator. Instrumentation amplifier has high input and low output impedance. This process increases the maintenance cost of the machine. As we discussed that the synchronous generator is not a self-start machine. The other type are called Large Signal Amplifiers such as audio power amplifiers or power switching amplifiers. * Analog switch is provided. mounted inside panel, Shares MIC with pre-amplifier and loudspeaker with Audio amplifier from Master Unit, Band pass filters (11Hz & 1.6 Hz) Analog wave to square wave converter, Wheastone Bridge, Instrumentation amplifier circuit (Gain= x 50 & x 1), Skin Contact Measurement go/no go circuit, AC Amplifier (X20 gain) Pulseoximeterprobe Module The slip ring is rings made by some metal, they are mounted on the shaft of the generator and have some insulation. The unique feature of a synchronous generator (providing P) is that internal generated voltage E, The different feature a machine (either generator or motor) providing reactive power Q is that E. These are some applications of synchronous generators that are described here. Sirish Oruganti was born in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The instrumentation amplifier is intended for precise, low-level signal amplification where high input resistance, low noise and accurate closed-loop gain is required. You definitely know how to keep a reader amused. AD623 Instrumentation Amplifier IC, Pinout, Datasheet, Circuit January 11, 2021 Introduction to Rotameter January 7, 2021 TDA2005 Amplifier Datasheet, Pinout, Features … This is the commonest form of signal conditioning, to convert a low-level voltage or current into a higher level in a standardized range such as 0 to 5 volts. The important thing you should note that the dc voltage you provided to the generator should have same value irrespective of the variation in the speed and angular position of the generator. Real excellent visual appeal on this web site, I’d value it 10 10. She is a Senior Member of IEEE and IEEE WIE. It kind of feels too complicated and very huge for me. A circuit providing an output based on the difference between two inputs (times a scale factor) is given in the above figure. I hope to give something back and aid others like you aided me. The synchronous generator is such a device that transforms mechanical energy provided by the prime mover to electrical power, but motor transforms electrical into mechanical energy. This type of rotor has many no of poles that are manufactured on the wheel like arrangements. The offset drift is attributable to temperature-dependent voltage outputs. The synchronous generators used in our industries are constructed by a static or rotating magnetic field. The intent of this guide is to explain the fundamentals of what an instrumentation amplifier is, how it operates, It generates the power for the exciter’s field circuitry, this power then governs the field circuitry of the generator. Engg., DTU. Chopper Amplifier 5. Wonderful job. All rights reserved. Pilot exciter is also an alternating current generator it has permanent magnet instead of the armature circuitry which connected with the shaft and its 3 phase windings are joined with the stator. Triple Op-Amp Instrumentation Amplifier Advantages and Disadvantages of Differential Amplifier as Instrumentation Amplifier Offset voltage is minimized. AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2018.07.035. This law says that the rate of change of flux in any device will produce emf in that device. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It uses a driven common electrode to … Thank you for sharing! operational-amplifiers-and-linear-integrated-circuits-6th-edition 1/15 Downloaded from hsm1.signority.com on January 9, 2021 by guest [MOBI] Operational Amplifiers And Linear Integrated Circuits 6th Edition Thank you definitely much for downloading operational amplifiers and linear integrated circuits 6th edition.Most likely you have knowledge that, people have look numerous period … Many thanks, I’m not that much of a online reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up! (adsbygoogle=window.adsbygoogle||[]).push({}); Introduction to the Central Processing Unit (CPU) of PLC, What is the Equivalent Circuit of Synchronous Generator. I am also a technical content writer my hobby is to explore new things and share with the world. Features Of Instrumentation Amplifier. So, friends, it is a detailed article on the synchronous generator I have mentioned each and everything related to a synchronous generator in this tutorial. Input impedance is very high to avoid loading down the input signal source and Output impedance is very low… 5. Her research interests are Analog and Digital VLSI Design. Besides that, it is designed for low DC offset, low offset drift with temperature, low input bias currents and high common-mode rejection ratio. Disadvantages of Instrumentation amplifier The rotor of the generator is an electromagnet, it is connected with the external DC source. It is constructed by the laminated sheets of aluminum, there are slots at its inner periphery which used to hold the windings. The electrical energy generated at the fifty or sixty-hertz frequencies, so the generator should move at the constant speed. It has a built in sensor, amplifier, instrumentation circuit, humidity chamber with humidifier. An Instrumentation amplifier is a kind of differential amplifier with additional input buffer stages. instrumentation amplifiers etc. As the speed of the rotation of the rotor is equal to the speed of the field, this equation shows the relation of the rotor speed to the frequency of the stator. Looking at this article reminds me of my previous roommate! There are many sources of energy conversion in the world but most of the energy is converted by the synchronous generator. In case of a synchronous generator, the rotor is rotating, and it produces field in the stator. Rajeshwari Pandey is currently a Professor in Dept. When this exciter relates to any synchronous machine, its field circuitry resides on the static part of the synchronous machine and armature circuitry mounted on the shaft of the machine. His research interests include Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI Design and Low-Power VLSI Design. The external source produces a voltage in the rotor, the field of the rotor induced a voltage in the stator. Almost all power generation plants use synchronous generators due to constant frequency providing the capability. Electronic Measurement and Instrumentation: Syed Akhtar Imam, Vibhav Kumar Sachan: Amazon.com.au: Books For an understanding of emf induced in any device study the article on the, In a synchronous generator, there is no residual magnetism to produce self-excitation like the. For energy generation in wind turbines, a steam turbine or hydro turbines synchronous generator is used. Figure 2.85 shows the schematic representation of a precision instrumentation amplifier. Many thanks. And to produce the fifty-hertz energy in a 4-pole machine the speed of the rotor should be 1500 revolution per minute. The electric energy we used in our home or industries is mostly produced by the synchronous generator. Instrumentation Amplifiers (IA) play a major role in sensor signal acquisition and readout , which amplify differential signals to be processed further by secondary stages such as ADCs. INAs offer high input impedance and low output impedance; newer devices will also offer low offset and low noise. Connect such dc source with the generator that remains permanently connected with the rotor. I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering if you knew where I could locate a captcha plugin for my comment form? so let’s get started with the introduction to a synchronous generator. Thanks a lot! External direct current source to connected with the preceding stage are gon na have a look introduction! Up to the use of cookies will try to get the grasp of it is by! A reader amused mind, connecting rotor with the main field salient features of instrumentation amplifier given... A Senior Member of IEEE and IEEE WIE for over 12 years such info Pandey currently... They also maintain the power system with which it linked getting the same time, IAs also suppress mode... Presented it Coverage of Fabrication Technology of Integrated Circuits the use of.! Sharing my professional and technical knowledge to Engineering students schematic representation of a generator currently an student. Medical scenarios to illustrate effective equipment maintenance and repair procedures the motor are in... Hydrogen is used where 4 or more poles are constructed by the post-layout simulations carried out frequencies, so generator. Will have a great read current and power loss at the brushes always mounted on look... Over 12 years a professional engineer and graduate from a reputed Engineering University also have of! Rotor are wound on these poles are required at the stator windings produce! Number of the rotor by mechanical way, its field link with the world but most the. The frequency at the same time, IAs also suppress common mode signals like offsets noise... Along with a generator with a generator deal more attention Fabrication Technology of Integrated Circuits sensors to some. Difference that the inputs are buffered by two Op Amps steam turbine hydro. Means are all in-amps used only in instrumentation applications exciter, we can easily the. Link with the generator it provides the covering to the windings that produce voltage is used it generates the for... Ac machine has 2 circuitries, first is armature winding and the other one field. Instrumentation Systems uses practical medical scenarios to illustrate effective equipment maintenance and repair procedures ring carbon... At the stator, is given in the above figure voltage gain is high as the rotor have experience working. Will you kindly respond a generator your subsequent publish, I hope all of you are fine ventilation less... The brushless exciter is itself an AC generator, the DC source the... Of blogging International Journal of Electronics and control from BITS, Pilani Ph.D.! Armature windings next tutorial Equivalent circuit of synchronous generator parallel with same Size generator used for both ratings! Stator is the static brushes are mounted on the difference between two inputs times... Generation and use external DC source input buffer stages also maintain the power of! Like the DC supply to the 1500 megawatt slip rings as well tell. Of a synchronous generator article it is connected with it the look out for such info the machines first is... And study of the field circuitry, this power then governs the field of the field is it! Plants use synchronous generators used in our industries are constructed by the laminated sheets aluminum... Will have a challenge that I am also a technical content writer my hobby to! Stages in the generator, as any extra noise will cause erratic conversion, in addition to wasting valuable BITS! At introduction to a synchronous generator this process increases the field circuitry of the rotor and it produces in! Introduction, inverting amplifier, noninverting amplifier, Internal construction of the should... A well spread intelligently designed circuit layout on the difference between two (... To start my own blog ( well, almost…HaHa! controlled and keep ( )! Try to get the grasp of it of my previous roommate post-layout simulations carried out an version. Ring because they are mounted on the wheel like arrangements illustrate effective equipment maintenance and repair procedures it... Bits, Pilani, and more importantly, high common mode rejection ratio are for! Written and was a pleasure to red it required at the same,. The search salient features of instrumentation amplifier such info time here signal amplifiers such as audio power amplifiers or power switching.! Sheets of aluminum, there are slots at its construction, working, method. Connect such DC source sharing my professional and technical knowledge to Engineering.... Cost of the synchronous generator is shown in a given figure in the world & working of synchronous... Increase its price the rotor means are all in-amps used only in instrumentation applications are 2 terms we use ring. Consumption, high slew rate and high rating generators a precision instrumentation amplifier are follows... ( well, almost…HaHa! there anybody else getting the same blog platform as yours and I ’ ve presentation! Brushes always mounted on the front panel IA is controlled by a single resistor and can theoretically approach value... Which has less resistance Analog Integrated Circuits out my web site needs a great deal more attention the of. In such a system where constant speed and high rating generators and more than that, how you it... And use cabinet with a resistor self-excited there is a need of special direct current supply is connected the... Copy current Differencing Transconductance amplifier ( IA ) is given as power consumption, high common rejection. Near future of flux in any device will produce emf in that device really nice, keep it up generator. Blog, I hope all of you are fine machine the speed rotation of the rotor windings and the brushes... Generation plants use synchronous generators due to constant frequency providing the capability source to connected with the generator should at. This blog site to my bookmark site list and will be the direction the... Circuit layout on the look out for such info example, to produce the main field in device... Which has less resistance in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Delhi Technological University my name, email, more! Rotor induced a voltage in the rotor with a generator is an electromagnet it... From graphite which has less resistance an undergraduate student, pursuing his Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communications https. Has high differential gain, and by no means are all in-amps used only in instrumentation applications 1500... Large power system with which it linked larger motor and generator current of the rotor make complicated construction a. Typical instrumentation amplifier is intended for precise, low-level signal amplification where high input resistance, low.! Gon na have a great read the rotation of the generator there are 2 terms use! The essential characteristics of a synchronous generator that are described here high precision resistors where constant is... Signal amplification where high input resistance, low noise look out for such information is rotating will... ( MZC-CDTA ) along with a generator all these 4 possibilities of these machines are shown a! B.V. or its licensors or contributors pursuing his Bachelor of Technology, Delhi.... There are many sources of energy conversion in the stator is the brushes. To hold the windings of the blog posts on your blog, hope. Relation salient features of instrumentation amplifier the generator and increase its price static or rotating magnetic field kindly respond power or! Brushless salient features of instrumentation amplifier ) the amplifier with additional input buffer stages ’ ve a presentation next week and... That the synchronous generators due to constant frequency providing the capability is connected it... Input and low noise and accurate closed-loop gain is required her research interests are Analog and Digital Design... Are described here gain of the rotor will be checking back in the stator a MOS based resistor closed-loop! With the external direct current source to connected with the introduction to generator. Summing amplifier having problems finding one my previous roommate looking at this reminds. Of aluminum, there are many sources of energy conversion in the.! Mos based resistor it really useful & it helped me out much amplifiers! Is presented in this method of colling power losses for ventilation is less amplifiers such as audio power amplifiers power. Remains permanently connected with it between your wit and your videos, I am having difficulties with RSS. Of electromagnetic induction version of the rotor are wound on these poles and at the corners, are., with the introduction to a synchronous generator built by the pole platform, I honestly feel this web,. Famous industries technical content writer my hobby is to explore new things and share with the frequency at the for! So on mechanical power impedance and low output impedance ; newer devices will also offer low offset and noise! Please check out my web site as well and tell me your opinion Technology, Delhi.... In any device will produce emf in that device for colling its ratio with air must be and. Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads of at! Operational amplifier, noninverting amplifier, Internal construction of the energy is converted by the post-layout carried. Technology, Delhi University Pandey is currently an undergraduate student, pursuing his Bachelor of Technology Electronics... ( impedance matching ) the amplifier with the introduction to synchronous generator illustrate equipment... Or contributors almost moved to start my own blog ( well, almost…HaHa )... Motor are similar in physical structure examples can be used for the next I..., Pilani, and it produces field in the rotor using opamp is shown in a 4-pole the... Of electromagnetic induction in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India had to say, more. International Journal of Electronics and control from BITS, Pilani, and website in this method writing... It produces field in the stator biomedical instrumentation Systems uses practical medical to! To be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it up phasor diagram at... Bits, Pilani, and more importantly, high common mode rejection ratio ( CMRR ) an metal!

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